For many training is seen as an art, and a black art at that, rather than a science. The idea that there is actually a science to training, and a methodology to be followed to ensure its effectiveness, is an anathema to those that view their own training as some special gift that they alone possess. Much like the claims in the psychometric industry that a single test is the holy grail of testing these outrageous training claims are the same myths that simply distract from the truth. On the contrary, training is an area that is now well researched and there is indeed a science to making training work.
Building on from their seminal work on training for team effectiveness Salas and his team have produced an excellent paper outlining what the science of training, (Salas, E., Tannenbaum, S.I., Kraiger, K., & Smith-Jentsch, K.A. (2012) The science of training and development in organizations: What matters in practice. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 13, 2, 74-101).
The paper is a free download and is one of those must-haves for all practitioners. Firstly, the paper covers various meta-analysis that has been conducted on training and note that training has been found to be effective from everything from managerial training and managerial leadership development through to behavioural modelling training.
Moreover, the paper provides clear guidelines as to how to enhance training effectiveness. Building on the research the guidelines for practitioners include:
Pre-training recommendations (Training needs analysis)
- Analysis of the job
- Analysis of the organisation
- Analysis of the person
- Communication strategy
- Notify attendees
- Notify supervisors
- During training interventions
- Creating the learner mind-set
- Following appropriate instructional principles
- Using technology wisely
- Ensure training transfer
- Evaluation methodology
The paper in many ways is what our discipline is all about; there is a strong research base, culminating research from multiple sources, with useful guidance for the practitioner provided. This is applied psychology and this is the scientist-practitioner model in practice.
As noted by Paul Thayer in his editorial to the paper:
“… There is a system and a science to guide organizations of all types in developing and/or adopting training to help achieve organizational goals. Salas et al. do an excellent job of summarizing what is known and providing concrete steps to ensure that valuable dollars will be spent on training that will improve performance and aid in the achievement of those goals. In addition, they provide a rich bibliography that will assist anyone needing more information as to how to implement any or all the steps to provide effective training. Further, they raise important questions that organizational leaders and policymakers should ask before investing in any training program or technology”.
There are many myths that pervade business psychology. Unfortunately, these often result in the baby often being thrown out with the bathwater and people dismissing the discipline as a whole. The key for any discerning HR professional and i/o psychologist is to be able to tell the myth from reality and have a simple framework, or checkpoints, to be a discerning reader of research. More on this tomorrow in the last blog for the year.